TABLE 1. Demographic of Survey Respondents
questions addressed respondent perception of the future of healthcare. The final
two questions addressed how amenable
CRTs would be to learning new modalities within radiology.
These surveys were delivered to 22
hospitals and four diagnostic imaging
centers in Eastern Tennessee and Eastern
Kentucky. A total of 248 questionnaires
were completed and returned for analysis. Individual respondents were kept
completely anonymous to the investigators of this study.
Descriptive statistics were incorpo-
rated isolating frequencies of respon-
dents. Multivariate analysis of variables
(MANOVA) was conducted to deter-
mine if a relationship existed between all
of the dependent variables and years of
experience. Levene’s t-test (an inferential
statistic used to assess the equality of vari-
ances in different samples) was utilized to
quantify homogeneity for the chosen data
sets and to verify strength of MANOVA.
A one-way ANOVA was completed to
understand any noticeable statistical sig-
nificance in the relationship of dependent
variables. Post hoc tests were utilized to
provide confidence in the results.
Of the returned questionnaires (n = 248)
there were 175 female (70.6%) and 73
male ( 29.4%) respondents. The demographics of the respondents surveyed are
listed in Table 1. The variable of years of
experience was broken down into three
categories: 0– 7 years, 8–15 years, and
16 plus years. The 16 plus category possessed the most respondents at 37.5%.
Both 0– 7 and 8–15 year variables had
relatively the same number of respondents.
See Table 2.
Table 3 summarizes four of the eight
questions surveyed under a modified
TABLE 2. Years of Experience
Valid 0– 7 years
Likert scale. The enjoyment of learning category (question 7) registered the
highest mean followed by new learning
(question 8). Mean is the average of a
numerical set and standard deviation is
a measure of the dispersion of a set of
data from its mean. The more spread
apart the data, the higher the deviation.
The results from the question pertaining to the future of healthcare (question
5) recorded a 99.6% percent positive result from CRTs. This number strongly
emphasizes that the CRT expects changes
to occur in healthcare.
Consideration is given for multiple
dependent variables within the analysis
so a MANOVA was conducted to provide
clarity to variable variance and protect
against errors. The results for this test only
indicate significance with new learning.
The other dependent variables did not
show significance and the null hypothesis
was not voided. Strengthening the results
of the MANOVA, Levene’s test also indicates that only new learning is significant.
The other dependent variables of embrace change, daily routine, and learning
experience did not indicate significance
reflecting that variance is equal among
these variables and the null hypothesis
is supported. Continuing to strengthen
the results of the MANOVA, other multivariate tests were performed (Pillai’s trace,
Wilks’ Lambda, Hotelling’s trace, and
Roy’s Largest Root). This empirical data
provides confidence to the results of the
MANOVA supporting CRTs’ willingness
to learn new modalities was significant.
To understand each dependent variable and correlation to years of experience,
an ANOVA was conducted to explain the
relationship. The ANOVA reflects a positive relationship between new learning
and years of experience; Pearson correlation confirmed this relationship between
new learning and years of experience. The
effect size indicates a small effect on the
sample population. Additionally, embracing change provided an ANOVA and
Pearson correlation indicating no statistical significant relationship between the
variables of embrace change and years of