by placebo. European Heart Journal. 2003;
15Spiegel H. Nocebo: the power of suggestibility.
Prevent Med. 1997;26:616–621.
16Lang EV, Berbaum KS, Pauker SG, et al. Beneficial effects of hypnosis and adverse
effects of empathic attention during percutaneous tumor treatment: When being nice
does not suffice. J Vasc Intervent Radiol.
17Ley P, Bradshaw PW, Kincey JA, Aterton ST.
Increasing apteints’ satisfaction with communication. Br J Soc Clin Psychol. 1976;
18Suchman A, Markakis K, Beckman HB, Frankel R. A model of empathic attention in the
medical interview. JAMA. 1997;277:678–
19Lang EV, Laser E. Patient sedation without
medication. Rapid rapport and quick hypnotic techniques. A resource guide for doctors,
nurses, and technologists . Vancouver, BC:
20Quirk ME, Letenre AJ, Ciottone RA, Lingley
JF. Evaluation of three psychologic interventions to reduce anxiety during MR
imaging. Radiology. 1989;173:759–762.
21Lang EV, Benotsch EG, Fick LJ, et al. Adjunctive non-pharmacologic analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomized
trial. Lancet. 2000;355:1486–1490.
22Lang EV, Berbaum K, Faintuch S, et al.
Adjunctive self-hypnotic relaxation for
outpatient medical procedures: A prospective randomized trial with women undergoing large core breast biopsy. Pain. 2006;
23Lang EV, Rosen M. Cost analysis of adjunct
hypnosis for sedation during outpatient
interventional procedures. Radiology.
24Lang EV, Ward C, Laser E. Effect of team
training on patients’ ability to complete
MRI examinations. Acad Radiol. In press.
25Friday PJ, Kubal WS. Magnetic resonance
imaging: improved patient tolerance utilizing medical hypnosis. Am J Clin Hypnosis.
26Klonoff EA, Janata JW, Kaufman B. The use
of systematic desensitization procedure to
overcome resistance to magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) scanning. J Behav Ther Exp
27Lang EV, Berbaum KS. Educating interventional radiology personnel in nonpharmacologic analgesia: effect on patients’ pain
perception. Acad Radiol. 1997;4:753–757.
28Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, Norlock
FE, Calkins DR, Delbanco TL. Unconventional medicine in the United States. N Engl
J Med. 1993;328:246–252.
Elvira V. Lang, MD, FSIR, FSCEH is associate professor
of radiology at Harvard Medical School and president,
Hypnalgesics, LLC, in Boston, MA. She can be contacted