1976: The University of Arizona medi- •
cal imaging group unveils its digital
imaging device. A French company
provides backing to build a commercial prototype which takes another two
to three years to develop.
1979: Professor Heinz Lamke, PhD, •
at the Technical University of Berlin
publishes a paper on applied imaging processing and computer graphic
methods in a study of head CT scans.
In the paper he describes a modern
PACS with all the components including an interface to a hospital information system.
1982: Dr. Andre Duerinckx and Sam- •
uel J. Dwyer III, PhD, organize a landmark PACS conference in Los Angeles
which is attended by more than 400
radiologists, researchers, and vendors.
One of the topics discussed is the idea
of linking all the modalities into a single digital imaging network.
1982–1983: At the University of Kansas, •
Dwyer oversees what may have been
the construction of the first PACS. The
system includes CT, ultrasound, and a
film digitizer for plain film. The workstations are slow and are of low resolution; however, they have the ability
to acquire, transmit, and archive. The
cost was about $700,000.
1983: Work on DICOM begins. Steven •
Hori, MD, and his colleagues work to
develop the DICOM standard. An initial meeting was held with the National
Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA) to codevelop DICOM with
1989–1990: At UCLA, H. K. “Bernie” •
Huang forms a medical imaging division under the radiology sciences
department to look into PACS. The
team creates and deploys a PACS in
pediatric radiology that is based on
the use of CR plates to digitize images.
A computer board decodes the digital
information on the CR tapes, which
allow x-rays to be displayed on PACS
Early to mid 1990s: Manufacturers are •
working to develop commercial PACS
hardware and software.
As you can see, a lot of people had an
influence on PACS development. This
brings us to today where we have numerous PACS vendors developing stable
systems. New developments continue to
emerge as is the case with the development of software for the use of iPhones
and iPads for image interpretation. It will
be interesting to see how this technology
will fit into the radiologist workflow.
Yes, PACS implementation is a time
consuming task that requires organization. It will also occasionally test your
patience and have you scratching your
head. However, some of the great things
that result are the teamwork it takes to
get the job done and the new people you
meet along the way.
Becker SH, Arenson RL. Costs and benefits of
picture archiving and communication
systems. Journal of the American Medical
Informatics Association. Sep/Oct 1994;
McKesson Corporation. Deep Roots: The History
of Medical Imaging. Medical Imaging Blog.
Available at: http://www.Medicalimagingtalk.
August 5, 2011.
Wiley G. The Prophet Motive: How PACS
was Developed and Sold. Imaging Economics. May 2005. Available at: http://www.
2005-05_01.asp. Accessed August 5, 2011.
Jim Lipcamon is the outpatient imaging services
manager at East Cooper Medical Center in Mt.
Pleasant, SC and is editor-in-chief of Radiology
Management. He holds a bachelor of science degree
in healthcare management from Bellevue University.
Jim may be reached at James.Lipcamon@tenethealth.